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PCM Energy P. Ltd
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General Products - AC Backup Phase Change Material - Encapsulation Method of PCM Phase Change Material Manufacturers
Telecom Shelters Phase Change Material - Doctor Says - Phase Change Material Air Conditioner at 21C or 29C
Phase Change Material Basic Telecom Shelter PCM Manufacturers
Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are "latent" thermal storage materials. They use chemical bonds to store and release heat. The thermal energy transfer occurs when a material changes from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a solid form. This is called a change in state or "phase." Initially, these solid-liquid PCMs perform like conventional storage materials; their temperature rises as they absorb solar heat. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when PCMs reach the temperature at which they change phase (their melting point), they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. When the ambient temperature in the space around the PCM drops, it solidifies, releasing its stored latent heat. PCMs absorb and emit heat while maintaining a nearly constant temperature. Within the human comfort and electronic-equipment tolerance range of 20°C to 35°C, latent thermal storage materials are very effective. The main applications for PCMs are when space restrictions limit larger thermal storage units in direct gain or sunspace passive solar systems. PCMs may be used in Thermal Enclosures like Telecom Chambers BTS or BT Shelters ( Basic Telecom Shelter )or solar domestic hot water heating or passive solar space heating/cooling systems.
Glauber's salt, Soda ash, Sodium acetate and Paraffin wax are the most commonly used PCMs in solar heating systems. Although these compounds are fairly inexpensive, the packaging and processing necessary to get acceptable performance from them is complicated and costly. They are not offering a reliable pattern of releasing heat as the chemicals in these separate and stratify when in their liquid state. These materials have not always re-solidified properly. When temperatures dropped, they did not completely solidify, reducing their capacity to store latent heat. These problems have been addressed by packaging phase change materials in thin or shallow containers and by adding clumping agents. Many salt hydrate thermal salts have the disadvantage that during extraction of stored heat the material super-cools before freezing. This reduces the utility of the materials and if too severe, it can completely prevent heat recovery. They lose their heat storage property after some cycles. These types of PCMs, however, compare unfavorably with the newer generation of low-cost, highly efficient Phase Change Materials. Researchers now label these older compounds as "limited utility" PCMs. Phase Change Materials perform best in containers that—when combined with the PCM—total one inch (25.4 millimeters). However, our T-Series Latest™ PCMs have defied this restriction. The packaging material should conduct heat well; and it should be durable enough to withstand frequent changes in the storage material's volume as phase changes occur. It should also restrict the passage of water through the walls, so the materials will not dry out. Packaging must also resist leakage and corrosion. Aluminum, steel and polyethylene are common packaging materials.
We cannot help making a negative comment on the products offered by other brands. Most of the brands are offering Thermal-Salt 29 that freezes at less than 18oC, making them practically useless in tropical regions. The shelf life of some of the vendors is hardly 45-60 days, making its use by long distance importers almost impractical. Most of such vendors are not manufacturers of the major ingredients but only compounders. Often, they are one-man-show manufacturers and quote fancy prices for the product. With the information technology to their aid, they make fancy web sites and manage to squeeze the buyers. We have six manufacturing units, owned and managed by family members and most of the ingredients are manufactured by us.
Latest 29T: PCM LatestTM Brand with Melting Point 29°C and Latent Heat of fusion 175 KJoule/Kg or 260 KJoule/liter. It is best suited for Air-Condition Back-up to BT Shelter or Telecom Shelter.
Latest 36S: PCM LatestTM Brand with Melting Point 36°C and Latent Heat of fusion >230KJ/Kg (260 KJoule/Kg or 357 KJoule/liter). It is best suited for Air-Cooled Out Door BTS or Telecom Shelter.
Telecom Enclosure: PCM or Phase Change Material widely used in Telecom Enclosures ( BTS or Basic Telecom Shelters) is Latest TM 29T for Air-condition Back Up AC and 36S for Free Cooling. We also Offer Polymer-based PCM-Filled Profiles or Panel and Battery Jacket, Balls, Pipes, Heat Sinks, Bottles and Aluminum/SS/MS PCM-Filled Profiles etc.. We also supply Telecom Shelter and provide engineering services and offer complete unit, with Air Circulators and Controls for Back-up Cooling in Existing Shelter (Retrofit) and in New Shelters.
Back-up Air-conditioning with Latest™29T PCM
Power Failure is very common in developing countries. Most BTS or Basic Telecom Shelters or Telecom Enclosures are equipped with electronic Equipments and Battery for emitting proper signal to the cell-phone users. Ac or Air conditioning is provided to keep it cool. When the power fails, the temperature inside the BTS or Basic Telecom Shelters start rising very rapidly due to heat generated by the equipments and also due to ambient conditions. Diesel Generators are provided to give back up. However they are largely depended on the alertness of the watchman cum operator at the site. The contractors often delay in sending diesel aggravating the problem. To minimize the dependence on generators, Back-up air-conditioning may be provided by phase change material. Latest™ 29T is used in India for giving back-up to Air-Conditions. 240kg of Latest™29T is generally used per BTS. 240kg*180 J/kg 43200 K Joules of backup. This is equal to 43200/3600 = 12 KWH of energy ( Theoretical Value is 188KJ/Kg of PCM giving back-up of 12.5 KWH).
Live-Site Trial in a Telecom Shelter after Retro-fitting it with 210 Kg of PCM Latest™29T (10 KWH back-up)
210 Kg of Latest29T PCM (10KWH) filled profiles were installed in an Existing BTS Basic Telecom Shelters of 2m Length by 2.5m width by 2.7m Height. Five thermometers were installed to measure temperature at various points. The Air-condition was switched off when the temperature was 17.3oC. Ambient temperature was also measured. The battery voltage was observed as per the instruction of the site-officer. The permissible maximum temperature that can be reached was targeted to 36oC. This temperature was not reached in 6 Hours of the run. In a blank reading with-out Latest29T PCM the target maximum temperature crossed in less than 1 hour.
Important Record. Time after Power Shut Down 0 1 Hour 2 Hours 3 Hours 4 Hours 5 Hours 6 Hours Time in Minutes After Shut-down 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Average Temp oC (of 5 Sensors) 17.3 22.4 25.2 27.3 29.1 30.2 31.3 32.1 32.6 32.8 33.1 33.2 33.3 Other Relevant Record Outside Temp oC 26.5 28 29.5 30 31 31 33 33 32 30 28.5 28 26.7 Battery Voltage 25.18 24.99 24.98 24.74 24.65 24.56 24.45 24.21 24.14 23.89 23.61 23.45 22.94 Shelter Temp Centre Top oC 17.5 23.1 25.8 28.1 29.5 30.6 31 31.7 33 33.5 33.5 34 34.1 Permissible limit of Trial was up to Shelter Temperature of 35oC. The Trial was discontinued as the Battery Voltage went low. The PCM could have lasted for 1-2 Hours more, if the Battery Voltage had not dropped.
OPERATING EXPENSES COMPARISON USING PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL
Power available 18 Hours/day. 6 hours load shedding. Power available 20 Hours/day. 4 hours load shedding. Expense on SHELTER WITHOUT PCM SHELTER WITH PCM SHELTER WITHOUT PCM SHELTER WITH PCM Power Cost Rs.04,10,625 Rs.05,47,500 Rs.04,56,250 Rs.5,47,500 DG Cost Rs.09,58,125 Rs.06,38,750 Rs.0,00,000 Total Cost Rs.13,68,750 Rs.05,47,500 Rs.10,95,000 Rs.5,47,500 Savings over 5 years Rs.08,21,250 Rs.5,47,500 % Savings in fuel cost. 60% 50% Only 25-35% of the above savings will be the cost of retrofitting PCM in an existing shelter. Considerations: 1. Power Cost = Hours of power availability (hrs) X Load (KW) X Cost of Power (Rs. 5/KW-hr) X 365 (Days/year) X 5 years 2. DG Cost = Hours of operation (hrs) X Diesel Cost ( 35 Rs/ltr) X Diesel Consumption (2.5 ltr/hr) X 365 (Days/year) X 5 years 3. Power Cost with PCM is higher as PCM uses energy from AC to charge. PCM charging cost = Load (KW) X Hours of back-up (hrs) X Days per year X Years X Cost of Power (Rs.5/unit) 4. Intangibles like cost of maintenance of DG set, COP of a/c, "green factor" of no emissions are not taken into consideration. 5. Benefits like 80 % book-depreciation in the first year on capital investments of "Energy Management Systems" is added advantage. Our company can undertake retro fitment of PCM's on a turnkey basis.
TECHNO-COMMERCIAL STATEMENT OF PCM PRODUCT T-SERIES LATEST™
PCM Energy P. Ltd. PCM Latest™ Product Latest™29T Series T-series Latest™ Description Viscous Semi-Solid near Phase Change Temperature Appearance Translucent Base Material Inorganic Salts Phase Change Temperature 28-30oC Sub Cooling 2oC max Specific Gravity 1.48-1.50 Latent Heat Practically 175 Joules/g Latent Heat Theoretical 188 Joules/g Spec. Heat 2 Joules/g oC Thermal Conductivity 1Watt/m oC Congruent Melting Yes Flammability No Hazardous No Thermal Stability > 10000 cycles Max. Operating Temperature 100oC Rates Available on request
Latest™ 25T, Latest™ 20T, Latest™ 18T salts are similar to Latest™ 29T
Phase Change Materials perform best in containers that have a depth of one inch (25.4 millimeters). However, our T-Series Latest™ PCMs have defied this restriction. T-series is the Latest in PCM technology, Generation-X. It is not degradable with time. It can be used in thicker layers greater than 1” (> 25mm). This product has made the earlier PCMs obsolete.
Table of Cycle No. V/s Latent Heat & Sub Cooling for PCM Latest™29T
Latent Heat KJ/Kg
Sub Cooling oC
The measurement error in Latent Heat can be upto 5% and the Thermometer sensor can be off by 0.5oC
Thermal Salt Latest™29T
Our Thermal Salt Latest™29T is a mixture of several ingredients. Most of these items are manufactured by us or by our sister concerns. Its properties are as under:
Specific Gravity: 1.5
Freezing Point: 28oC
Melting Point: 29oC
Latent Heat of Fusion : >175 KJoule/Kg (40 K. Cal/Kg). 255 KJ/ltr (60000 KCal/Cu.m)
*Most manufacturers report the heat of fusion in a temperature range, like 20oC to 35oC. The specific heat of PCM in this range will get added to the values. For this temperature range
*Latent Heat of Fusion: 210 KJoule/Kg (50 K. Cal/Kg).
Shelf Life: Infinite
Max. Operating Temp.: 100oC
Thermal Salt filled Battery Jacket for Outdoor Telecom Shelter helps keep the battery at the desired temperature even when the internal temperature of the shelter varies widely. It thus enables establishment of two-climate zones in the shelter, enhancing the life of the battery.
Battery Jacket for Outdoor Telecom Shelter
For Advanced Users: Most PCM users are at the elementary stage of using the PCMs. They are ordinarily not conditioned to talk of any deviations from the systems, they have heard of. Using PCM-29 itself is more than adequate mental kick for them. Some vendors manage to convince them that the use of PCMs will save energy charges for them. The primary purpose of the PCMs is to provide a back-up to Air Condition AC and avoid the use of Diesel Generator. The site managers and the watch-man cum operator of the site, may not be sufficiently professional.They often fail to keep the diesel at site and restore to "Keep the Door Open for Cooling" ways to cut corners. The relevance of PCMs is more, if the power failure is a norm in the area of usage. We have a Brain-Wave. Instead of giving 4-6 hours of Back-up, why not give 12-18 hours of Back-up and eliminate the Diesel Generator???!!! This will, of course needs higher battery capacity. In those places, where the whether and equipments permits, you can eliminate the Air Conditioner by using Day-Night temperature balancing with PCM.
In a remote area a site was running on diesel generator and there was no electricity in the region. On receiving an enquiry for installing PCM in the BT Shelter, we had the impulse of telling them that PCM will be of no use to them. One of their junior engineer was very bright and he discussed the details with our senior scientist. He summarized that their diesel generator is installed for working in the extreme conditions of weather and telecom traffic. the generator works on full load, irrespective of the traffic and weather. If PCM back-up is installed, then it will reduce their diesel cost by 50% and hence he ordered for installing the PCM back-up. To the good luck of the junior engineer his theory did work.
Free Cooling for BT Shelters (Telecom Shelter)
The above details are the mean maximum and minimum temperatures in various cities in the “Hinter Land”. The selected cities do not include any of the costal towns as the costal towns have a different temperature pattern. The above information is available from World Weather Information Service, India Meteorological Department. A close scrutiny shows that the mean monthly maximum temperature in India, in the hinterland can be 43oC and a peak time maximum temperature in India, in the hinterland can be 45oC with an occasional shoot-upto 50oC. The corresponding minimum temperature can be 27oC on that day. A Phase Change Material of 36oC is ideally suited for such a climate and for a BT Shelter that is targeting a maximum temperature of 40oC inside the shelter.
The worst day in the year may have a temperature profile in a day as under:
40 to 45oC+ for 4hours 36 to 40oC for 8 hours 27 to 36oC for 12 hours
The temperature pattern in the BT Shelter can be as under:
No. of Hours in a day Ambient Temp.C Shelter Temp. w/o cooling Shelter Temp. with 36C PCM Energy Load in KWH 4 40-45+ 50-55 C 38-40 C 5KWH Discharging 8 36-40 46-50 C 36-38 C 5KWH Discharging 12 27-36 37-46 C 27-36 C Charging PCM.
The PCM of Melting Point 36 oC is well suited for the job. Depending on the size of BTS and ambient conditions, the Energy load will vary. Ideally we must have enough PCM to take care of uncertainties. We propose to have 100 kg of PCM of >200 Kilo Joules/kg which means 20000 KJ for the system (A big size system. For smaller shelters 50Kg PCM may be enough.). The user may evaluate, amend and interact with us.
Depending upon the need one can select, Latest™ 32S, Latest™ 34S, Latest™ 45S salts that are similar to Latest™ 36S; which is tabulated below.
TECHNO-COMMERCIAL STATEMENT OF PCM PRODUCT PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL S-SERIES LATEST™
PCM Energy P. Ltd. PCM Latest™ Product Latest™36S Series S-series Latest™ Description Viscous Semi-Solid near Phase Change Temp. Appearance Cream or Gray Base Material Inorganic Salts Phase Change Temp. 36C Sub Cooling @ 1000 cycles Small Specific Gravity 1.45 Latent Heat Theoretical 260 Joules/g Latent Heat Practical >230 Joules/g Spec. Heat 2 Joules/g C Thermal Conductivity 0.6Watt/m C Congruent Melting Yes Flammability No Hazardous No Thermal Stability > 10000 cycles Max. Operating Temp. 100C Rates Available on request
Latest TM 32S, Latest™ 34S, Latest™ 45S salts are similar to Latest™ 36S.
Phase Change Materials perform best in containers that have a depth of one inch (25.4 millimeters). However, our S-Series Latest™ PCMs have defied this restriction. S-series is the Latest in PCM technology, Generation-X. It is not degradable with time. It can be used in thicker layers greater than 1” (> 25mm). This product has made the earlier Phase Change Materials PCMs obsolete.
Thermal Salt 36S.
Our Thermal Salt 36S is a mixture of several ingredients. Most of these items are manufactured by us or by our sister concerns. Its properties are as under:
Specific Gravity: 1.45
Melting Point: 36C. There can be some freezing/melting in 3C around it.
Latent Heat of Fusion: 260 KJoule/Kg (62 K. Cal/Kg)
---------------------- 377 KJoule/Liter (90000 KCal/Cu.m)
*Most manufacturers report the heat of fusion in a temperature range, like 20C to 40C. The specific heat of PCM in this range will get added to the values. For this temperature range
*Latent Heat of Fusion: 300 KJoule/Kg (72 K. Cal/Kg)
Thermal Expansion: The coefficient of thermal expansion is the least offered in the industry. This eliminates cracking or shattering of containers and tubes.
Max. Operating Temp.:100C
Telecom Shelter PCM Phase Change Material Manufacturers
PCM Energy P. Ltd
Mazgaon, Mumbai 400 010, INDIA
TEL: 91-22-23770100, 23774610, 23726950, 23723564. FAX: 91-22-23728264
USA & Canadian Customers may Call 773-829-5811
Copyright and Usual Disclaimer is Applicable
Last updated: 15 February, 2013
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Conventional PCM-Filled AC Back-up for Telecom Shelter
AC Back-up for Telecom Shelter in Aluminum Pipes
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